Loxosceles reclusa, or the brown recluse spider, as it is commonly known, is the most widespread and dangerous recluse spider species in the United States. Generally, experts refer only to the brown recluse and the black widow as the two medically significant spider species in the US, but this statement can be misleading, as there exists three black widow species in the country, and 12 additional recluse spider species can be found in the US. The three black widow species inhabiting the US include western, southern and northern black widows, all three of which are dangerous to humans, but only the southern black widow can be found throughout Texas. Of the 13 recluse spider species in the US, a total of five can be found in Texas, two of which are known to inhabit Waco, but additional recluse species can appear in the city on occasion.
The recluse spider species that can be found in Texas include Loxosceles apachea, L. blanda, L. devia, L. reclusa and L. rufescens. Of these species, only two have a habitat distribution that overlaps Waco, the brown recluse and L. devia. The latter species is commonly known as the Texas recluse, and while the brown recluse can be found all over Texas, the Texas recluse is likely the most commonly encountered recluse species in the state. The habitat distribution of L. apachea and L. rufescens are scattered over Texas, but both of these species are rare in Waco. Residents of Waco are also more likely to encounter brown recluse spiders within their home as opposed to Texas recluse spiders, as the latter’s habitat range becomes thin around central to northwest Texas.
While brown recluse spiders get all of the attention for inflicting dangerous bites, research shows that the 12 additional recluse species inhabiting the US are also dangerous to humans, including the Texas recluse. However, very few studies have been carried out on bites inflicted by these more obscure recluse species. Brown recluse spiders are not shy about entering homes, sometimes in large numbers. These venomous spiders are often found in corners, crevices, closets, storage rooms, bathrooms, bedrooms, under furniture and in garages.
Have you ever sustained a bite from a brown recluse spider?